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罗斯巴德 | 社会主义经济计算辩论史(下)
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    鍦ㄥ叾1920骞寸殑寮?鍒涙?ц鏂囦腑锛岀背濉炴柉寮鸿皟:钬滃彧瑕佽嚜鐢卞喅瀹氶佩绾у晢鍝佽揣甯佷环镙肩殑姒傚康琚斁寮冿紝鍚堢悊镄勭敓浜у氨瀹屽叏涓嶅彲鑳姐?傗?濇帴镌?绫冲鏂瑷?:钬滀汉浠彲浠ラ娴嬫湭鏉ョぞ浼氢富涔夌ぞ浼氱殑镐ц川銆傛湁鎴愬崈涓娄竾镄勫伐铡傚湪杩愯浆銆傜劧钥岋紝鍙湁鏋佸皯鏁扮殑鎴愬搧鍙互绔嫔嵆寰楀埌銆傚湪澶у鏁版儏鍐典笅锛屽崐鎴愬搧鍜岀敓浜ц?呯殑浜у搧灏呜鐢熶骇鍑烘潵銆傛墍链夎繖浜涢棶棰橀兘鏄浉浜掑叧鑱旗殑銆傛疮浠跺晢鍝佸湪浣跨敤鍓嶉兘瑕佺粡杩囦竴绯诲垪镄勯桩娈点?傜劧钥岋紝鍦ㄨ繖涓棤浼戞镄勮壈鑻﹁绷绋嬩腑锛屽綋灞?灏嗙己涔忎换浣曟坠娈垫潵妫?楠岀粨鏋溿?傛案杩沧棤娉旷‘瀹氢竴浠剁粰瀹氱殑鍟嗗搧鍦ㄥ繀瑕佺殑鐢熶骇杩囩▼涓槸鍚﹁姳璐逛简澶昵镄勬椂闂达紝浠ュ强鍦ㄥ畲鎴愭椂鏄惁娴垂浜嗗姵锷ㄥ姏鍜屾潗鏂欍?傛垜浠浣曞喅瀹氲繖绉嶆垨鍙︿竴绉岖敓浜ф柟寮忔洿链夊埄鍙浘锛熷厖鍏堕噺锛屽畠鍙兘姣旇缉鍙互娑堣垂镄勬渶缁堜骇鍝佺殑璐ㄩ噺鍜屾暟閲忥紝浣嗗緢闅炬瘮杈幂敓浜ф垚链??

    Mises鎸囧嚭锛屽嵆浣挎敛搴灭煡阆揿畠璇曞浘杈惧埌浠?涔堢洰镄勶紝浠?涔埚晢鍝佹槸链?杩垏闇?瑕佺殑锛屽畠涔熶笉鐭ラ亾鐞嗘?х粡娴庤绠楁墍闇?镄勫叾浠栧叧阌绱?:鍚勭鐢熶骇璧勬枡镄勪及浠枫?傚湪璧勬湰涓讳箟甯傚満涓紝杩欑浼颁环鍙互鐢辨墍链変骇鍝佸强鍏惰绱犵殑璐у竵浠锋牸鍐冲畾銆俒19]

    绫冲鏂殑缁撹鏄紝鍦ㄧぞ浼氢富涔夌粡娴庝腑锛屼篃灏辨槸钬滃湪钬樻棤搴忊?欑殑鐢熶骇鏂瑰纺钬濈粡娴庝腑锛屽彧链変笉鍚堢悊镄勮缃墠鑳界敤鏉ョ敓浜ф棤镒忎箟镄勪?у嚭銆傚嵆浣胯疆瀛愯浆锷紝瀹冧滑涔熶笉鑳藉墠杩涖?傗?漑20]姝ゅ锛屽湪浠栧悗鏉ュ甯旷疮镓?-宸撮殕鏂圭▼鏀寔钥呯殑鍙嶉┏涓紝绫冲鏂寚鍑猴紝鍏抽敭闂涓崭粎鍦ㄤ簬缁忔祹姘歌繙涓崭细澶勪簬杩欎簺寰垎鏂圭▼镓?鎻忚堪镄勪竴鑸潎琛$姸镐并?傚潎琛℃ā鍨嬭缮链夊叾浠栦弗閲岖殑闂(渚嫔锛岀ぞ浼氢富涔夎鍒掕?呯洰鍓崭笉鐭ラ亾浠栦滑鍦ㄦ湭鏉ュ潎琛′腑镄勪环链兼按骞筹绂璐у竵鍜岃揣甯佸厬鎹笉绗﹀悎杩欑妯″纺銆傜敓浜ц绱犵殑鍗曚綅镞笉鏄畲鍏ㄥ彲鍒嗙殑锛屼篃涓嶆槸镞犻檺灏忕殑銆备笉鍚屼汉镄勮竟闄呮晥鐢ㄤ笉鑳界瓑浜庯紝镞犺鏄湪甯傚満杩樻槸鍦ㄥ叾浠栧湴鏂?)銆傚浜庨偅浜涘凡缁忚揪鍒版垨鑳藉杈惧埌钬滃亣瀹氩钩琛$姸镐佲?濈殑浜嬬墿锛岃繖涓瓑寮忊?滀笉鑳芥彁渚涗换浣曞叧浜庝汉绫昏涓虹殑淇℃伅钬濄?傛?讳箣锛岃繖浜涙柟绋嬩笉鑳芥彁渚涗换浣曞叧浜庡浣曚粠鐜版湁镄勪笉骞宠 钟舵?佷腑瀹炵幇涓?鑸钩琛$洰镙囩殑淇℃伅銆?

    Mises鐗瑰埆鎸囧嚭:钬滀负浜呜璁虹殑绠?鍗曪紝璁╂垜浠亣璁炬湁涓?涓绉樼殑鐏垫劅浣胯繖涓粺娌昏?呰兘澶熻В鍐虫墍链夊叧浜庡浣曞湪娌℃湁缁忔祹璁$畻镄勬儏鍐典笅涓虹敓浜ф椿锷ㄥ仛鍑烘渶链夊埄镄勫畨鎺掔殑闂锛屽苟涓斾粬蹇呴』杩芥眰镄勬渶缁堢洰镙囩殑娓呮榈褰㈣薄镐绘槸鍦ㄤ粬镄勮剳娴蜂腑銆傗?滀粛链変竴浜涘叧阌棶棰橀渶瑕侀?氲绷缁忔祹璁$畻鏉ヨВ鍐炽?傚洜涓虹ぞ浼氢富涔夎鍒掕?呮病链変粠板跺紑濮嬶紝鐢ㄦ渶瀹岀编镄勮璁℃潵寤虹珛璧勬湰鍜屽晢鍝佺粨鏋勶紝浠ュ疄鐜颁粬浠殑鐩爣銆备粬涓?瀹氭潵镊簬杩囧幓镄勮澶氶桩娈碉紝骞朵笖浠庣敱杩囧幓镄勬秷璐硅?呰瘎浼板拰杩囧幓镄勭敓浜ф妧链喅瀹氱殑璧勬湰鍜屽晢鍝佺粨鏋勫紑濮嬨?傝祫链粨鏋勭殑鏋勫缓鏄敱涓嶅悓绋嫔害镄勮绷铡诲喅瀹氱殑锛屼换浣曚汉閮藉繀椤讳粠鐜板湪寮?濮嫔埄鐢ㄨ繖浜涜祫婧愭潵灏藉彲鑳藉湴瀹炵幇褰揿墠鍜岄链熺殑链潵鐩爣銆傚浜庤繖浜涘叿链変笉鍚屾?ц川镄勪笉鍚岄?夋嫨锛屾暟瀛︽柟绋嬫槸娌℃湁鐢ㄧ殑銆俒21]

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    链?鍚庯紝鐩村埌浠婂ぉ浠岖劧琚拷瑙嗙殑鏄背濉炴柉瑙傜偣镄勭嫭鐗瑰熀纭?锛岃繖浣夸粬鍜屼粬镄勨?灭ぞ浼氢富涔変笉鍙兘镐р?濆尯鍒簬鍝堣?跺厠鍜屽搱钥跺厠镄勭?句细涓讳箟钥呫?傝槠铹剁背濉炴柉鍦ㄤ粬镄勫洖蹇嗗綍涓竻妤氩湴琛ㄨ揪浜嗕粬镄勮绠楃悊璁虹殑鍩虹鍜屽师鐞嗭紝浣呜繖绉嶅拷瑙嗕粛鍦ㄧ户缁?俒22]涓庡搱钥跺厠鍙婂叾杩介殢钥呬笉鍚岋紝绫冲鏂湪璇佹槑镊繁镄勮镣规椂锛屾敞镒忓埌浜嗕竴鑸潎琛℃ā鍨嬬殑缂洪櫡銆备笉浠呬粎鏄嫃鑱旗ぞ浼氢富涔夐潻锻界殑鑳滃埄瀵艰嚧浜嗕粬镄勬写鎴朴??

    绫冲鏂叧浜庣ぞ浼氢富涔夎绠楃殑瑙傜偣鍙互杩芥函鍒颁粬镄勭涓?閮ㄥ法钁椼?婅揣甯佷笌淇¤捶鐞呜銆? (1912)銆傚湪钁楀悕镄勬暣鍚堣揣甯佺悊璁哄拰钬滃井瑙傗?濊竟闄呮晥鐢ㄧ悊璁虹殑杩囩▼涓紝绫冲鏂鍏堣璇嗗埌甯傚満涓秷璐硅?呯殑涓昏璇勪环(鍜屽姵锷ㄥ姏)鏄函绮规湁搴忕殑锛屼笉鑳介噺鍖栥?傜劧钥岋紝甯傚満浠锋牸鏄熀纭?锛屽彲浠ョ敤璐у竵鏉ラ噺鍖栥?傜敱浜庡竞鍦鸿揣甯佷环镙肩殑瀛桦湪锛屽悇绉嶅晢鍝佸彲浠ュ湪鍩虹涓婅繘琛屾瘮杈冨拰璁$畻(渚嫔锛屼竴椤?10缇庡厓镄勫附瀛悫?滀环链尖?濇槸涓?鏉?2缇庡厓镄勯溃鍖呯殑5链?)銆俒23]浣嗘槸绫冲鏂剰璇嗗埌杩欑瑙佽В镒忓懗镌?杩欑璇存硶鏄崚璋殑(灏卞儚镡婂郊鐗逛竴镙?)锛屽嵆甯傚満钬滀及璁♀?濇秷璐瑰搧瀵圭敓浜ц绱犵殑浠峰?笺?傝链间笉鏄洿鎺モ?滀及璁$殑钬濅及璁¤绷绋嫔彧鏄棿鎺ュ湴渚濊禆浜庡竞鍦轰笂镄勮揣甯佷环镙笺?傚湡鍦板拰璧勬湰鍟嗗搧甯傚満镶畾缂轰箯绀句细涓讳箟锛屽洜姝や篃缂轰箯璁$畻鍜屾瘮杈冨悇绉嶅晢鍝佸拰链嶅姟镄勮兘锷涖?傚洜姝わ紝鍦ㄧぞ浼氢富涔夊埗搴︿笅锛屼换浣旷敓浜ц祫婧愮殑鍚堢悊閰岖疆閮芥槸涓嶅彲鑳界殑銆俒24]

    锲犳锛屽绫冲鏂潵璇达紝浠栫殑绀句细涓讳箟璁$畻宸ヤ綔鏄洿鎺ヤ氦鎹㈠拰璐у竵浜ゆ崲鍦ㄢ?滃井瑙傛柟闱⑩?濆拰钬滃畯瑙傛柟闱⑩?? 銆婅揣甯佷笌淇¤捶鐞呜銆嬬殑镓╁睍鍜屽悎骞剁殑閲嶈缁勬垚閮ㄥ垎锛岃繖涓?宸ヤ綔宸茬粡寮?濮嬩絾灏氭湭瀹屾垚銆俒25]

    瀵瑰搱钥跺厠鍜岀鍏圭撼镄勮瑙?

    20涓栫邯30骞翠唬鍜?40骞翠唬镄勬缁熷强杩伴敊璇湴璁や负鍝堣?跺厠鍜屼粬镄勮拷闅忚??(濡傜绥瀹炬柉)灞堟湇浜庡笗绱墭-宸撮殕鏂圭▼锛屾斁寮冧简绫冲鏂殑钬灭悊璁衡?濇柟娉曪紝杞?屼緷闱犲绀句细涓讳箟璁″垝镄勨?滃疄闄呪?濆弽瀵广?俒26]姝e鎴戜滑镓?鐪嫔埌镄勶紝鍝堣?跺厠娌℃湁镓胯涓?鑸潎琛℃暟瀛︽柟绋嫔湪姝g‘镄勭粡娴庣悊璁轰笂镄勫瀯鏂湴浣嶃?傜劧钥岋紝涓嶅垢镄勬槸锛屽搱钥跺厠鍜屼粬镄勮拷闅忚?呭畲鍏?鏀瑰彉浜嗏?滃ゥ鍦板埄瀛︽淳钬濈殑鏁翠釜铹︾偣瑙傜偣锛屾洸瑙d简绫冲鏂殑璁虹偣锛屾垨钥呮湁镒忓拰绉桦瘑鍦拌浆绉讳简浜夎镄勫叧阌浔浠讹紝杩欎篃鏄簨瀹炪??

    镐昏?岃█涔嬶紝鍝堣?跺厠鍜屽搱钥跺厠镄勮拷闅忚?呮姏寮冧简绫冲鏂殑钬滀笉鍙兘钬濆苟璁や负杩欎釜璇嶆槸浠や汉灏村艾镄勬涔夛紝杩欎笉鏄伓铹剁殑銆傚湪鍝堣?跺厠鐪嬫潵锛岀ぞ浼氢富涔夎鍒掑眬镄勪富瑕侀棶棰樻槸缂轰箯鐭ヨ瘑銆傚鏋沧病链夊竞鍦猴紝绀句细涓讳箟瑙勫垝灞?灏嗘棤娉曚简瑙f秷璐硅?呯殑浠峰?兼按骞充互鍙婅祫婧愭垨鍙敤鎶?链殑渚涘簲鎯呭喌銆傚鍝堣?跺厠鏉ヨ锛岃祫链富涔夌粡娴庢槸阃氲绷镊敱甯傚満浠锋牸镄勨?滀俊鍙封?濆皢鐭ヨ瘑浠庝竴涓汉浼犳挱鍒板彟涓?涓汉镄勯吨瑕佹坠娈点?傞润镐佺殑涓?鑸潎琛$粡娴庡彲浠ュ厠链嶅搱钥跺厠镄勭煡璇嗗垎鏁i棶棰桡紝锲犱负链?缁堬紝镓?链夌殑鏁版嵁閮藉皢涓烘疮涓汉镓?鐭ワ紝浣嗙幇瀹炰笘鐣屼腑涓嶆柇鍙桦寲镄勪笉纭畾鏁版嵁阒绘浜嗙ぞ浼氢富涔夎鍒掑眬銮峰彇杩欑鐭ヨ瘑銆傚洜姝わ紝鍦ㄥ搱钥跺厠鐪嬫潵锛屾敮鎸佽嚜鐢辩粡娴庡拰鍙嶅鏀垮簻鎺у埗镄勭粡娴庢?绘槸闇?瑕佷緷闱犳棤鐭ョ殑璁鸿瘉銆?

    铹惰?岋紝瀵圭背濉炴柉鏉ヨ锛屾牳蹇冮棶棰树笉鏄?灭煡璇嗏?濄?备粬鏄庣‘琛ㄧず锛屽嵆浣跨ぞ浼氢富涔夎鍒掕?呮棤镓?涓岖煡锛屾复链涙弧瓒虫秷璐硅?呯殑浠峰?间紭鍏堬紝鍗充娇璁″垝钥呭镓?链夎祫婧愬拰镓?链夋妧链兘链夊畲缇庣殑浜呜В锛屼絾鐢变簬缂轰箯鐢熶骇璧勬枡镄勪环镙间綋绯伙紝浠栦滑浠岖劧娌℃湁璁$畻鑳藉姏銆傞棶棰树笉鍦ㄤ簬鐭ヨ瘑锛岃?屽湪浜庡彲璁$畻镐с?傛濡傝惃鍕掕鏁欐巿鎸囧嚭镄勶紝褰揿墠镄勬垨绋岖旱鍗抽?濈殑钬滆绷铡烩?濅环镙间紶杈句简鍏充簬娑堣垂钥呰瘎浼般?佹妧链?佷緵搴旗瓑鏂归溃镄勭煡璇嗐?备笉涔呭墠銆傜劧钥岋紝琛屽姩钥呮劅鍏磋叮镄勬槸灏呜祫婧愭姇鍏ョ敓浜у拰阌?鍞紝杩欐槸链潵镄勪环镙硷紝钥岃祫婧愮殑褰揿墠澶勭悊鏄敱浼佷笟瀹跺畲鎴愮殑锛屼粬浠殑鑱岃兘鏄瘎浼帮紝棰勬祴链潵镄勪环镙煎苟鐩稿簲鍦板垎閰嶈祫婧愩?傛鏄繖绉崭互杩芥眰鍒╂鼎鍜岄伩鍏嶆崯澶变负锷ㄦ満镄勮瘎浼颁紒涓氩镄勬牳蹇冨拰鍏抽敭浣灭敤锛屾棤娉旷敱缂轰箯鐢熶骇璧勬枡甯傚満镄勭ぞ浼氢富涔夎鍒掑眬鏉ュ畲鎴愩?傛病链夎繖镙风殑甯傚満锛屽氨涓崭细链夌湡姝g殑璐у竵浠锋牸锛屼紒涓氩涔熸案杩沧棤娉曟抵鎹熀纭?镄勮揣甯佹浔浠惰繘琛岃绠楀拰璇勪及銆?

    浠庢洿鍝插镄勮搴︽潵鐪嬶紝鍝堣?跺厠瀵光?灭煡璇嗏?濈殑鍏ㄩ儴寮鸿皟鏄敊璇殑銆备汉绫昏锷ㄧ殑鐩殑涓嶆槸钬灭煡阆撯?濓紝钥屾槸鐢ㄦ坠娈佃揪鍒扮洰镙囥?傝惃鍕掕鏁忛攼鍦版?荤粨浜嗙背濉炴柉镄勮镣?:

    浠锋牸绯荤粺涓嶆槸銆备粠浜虹被琛屽姩镄勮搴︽潵鐪嬶紝瀹冧笉鑳芥垚涓鸿妭绾︿娇鐢ㄥ拰浜ゆ崲鍏充簬鐢熶骇璁″垝镄勭煡璇嗙殑链哄埗(鍝堣?跺厠镄勬剰瑙?)銆傚巻鍙蹭笂瀹炵幇镄勪环镙兼槸瀵逛及浠风殑涓?绉嶅府锷╋紝浼颁环鏄竴绉嶅绩鐞嗘椿锷ㄥ拰涓?绉嶉噺鍖栫粨鏋勶紝瀹冧娇鐢ㄧ悊瑙f潵璇勪及涓庣粡娴庢暟鎹殑棰勬湡鎯呭喌鐩镐竴镊寸殑浠锋牸鍏崇郴銆傞链熸湭鏉ヤ环镙间笉鏄竴涓煡璇嗗伐鍏凤绂瀹冧滑鏄粡娴庤绠楃殑镓嬫銆傜粡娴庤绠楁湰韬笉鏄幏鍙栫煡璇嗙殑镓嬫锛岃?屾槸绀句细鍒嗗伐鑳屾櫙涓嬬悊镐ц锷ㄧ殑鍓嶆彁銆傚畠涓烘疮涓汉鎻愪緵浜嗙浉鍚岀殑蹇呰宸ュ叿鏉ュ疄鐜板绀句细琛屽姩镓嬫鍜岀洰镙囩殑蹇幂悊鐞呜В鍜屾瘮杈冿紝钥屼笉绠′粬浠殑鐭ヨ瘑绂?璧嫔浣曘?俒27]

    缃楁柉宸村痉 | 绀句细涓讳箟缁忔祹璁$畻杈╄鍙诧纸涓嬶级

    鍦ㄦ渶杩戠殑涓?绡囱鏂囦腑锛岀鍏圭撼鏁欐巿鏀寔鍝堣?跺厠镄勮镣广?傚鍝堣?跺厠鍜岀鍏圭撼鏉ヨ锛屽竞鍦烘槸涓?涓?滃彂鐜拌绷绋嬧?濓紝鍗崇煡璇嗙殑浼犳挱銆傝繖绉嶅竞鍦鸿镣瑰拰涓栫晫瑙傚苟娌℃湁鐪熸镒忚瘑鍒颁紒涓氩涓嶆槸钬滃彂鐜拌?呪?濓紝钥屾槸鍏呮弧娲诲姏镄勫啋闄╄?咃紝濡傛灉浠栦滑鍦ㄨ瘎浼板拰棰勬祴涓姱浜嗛敊璇紝灏辨湁鍙兘鍙楀埌鎹熷銆傜鍏圭撼瀵光?滃彂鐜拌绷绋嬧?濈殑镓胯闱炲父阃傚悎浠栬嚜宸辨渶鍒濈殑浼佷笟瀹惰亴鑳芥蹇碉紝鍗斥?滆瑙夋?р?濄?备笉鍚岀殑浼佷笟瀹跺浠栦滑鐪嫔埌鍜屽彂鐜扮殑链轰细链変笉鍚岀殑璀﹁镐с?傜劧钥岋紝杩欎釜姒傚康瀹屽叏璇В浜嗕紒涓氩镄勪綔鐢ㄣ?备紒涓氩涓崭粎浠呮槸钬滆瑙夆?濓绂浠栧湪棰勬祴銆备粬姝e湪璇勪及锛涗粬阃氲绷杩介?愬埄娑﹀拰阆垮厤鎹熷け鏉ユ圹鎷呴闄╁拰涓岖‘瀹氭?с?傛濡傝惃鍕掕鎸囧嚭镄勯偅镙凤紝鍝堣?跺厠-绉戝吂绾崇殑钬滀紒涓氩钬濆湪浠栦滑璋堣镄勬墍链夊姩镐佸拰涓岖‘瀹氭?ф柟闱㈠嚭濂囧湴琚姩鍜屾棤锷ㄤ簬琛凤紝鎺ュ弹骞惰锷ㄥ湴鍚告敹甯傚満缁欎粬镄勭煡璇嗐?傚搱钥跺厠-绉戝吂绾充紒涓氩姣斾粬浠兂璞$?勬洿鎺ヨ繎鐡﹀皵鎷夋柉铏氭瀯镄勨?沧媿鍗栦汉钬?:浠栦滑锲为伩甯傚満涓婄殑镓?链夊疄闄呬氦鏄撱?俒28]

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    瑙f柟绋嫔拰链楁牸镄勬渶鍚庝竴鍙ヨ瘽

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    鍏充簬绀句细涓讳箟涓嶅彲鑳藉拰瀛桦湪镄勪簤璁?

    镊?1917骞翠互鏉ワ紝鎴栬?呰嚜鏂ぇ鏋楀湪20涓栫邯30骞翠唬鍒濆ぇ姝ヨ繄鍚戠ぞ浼氢富涔変互鏉ワ紝闾d簺鍙嶅绫冲鏂殑璐i毦鍜屾崓鍗ぞ浼氢富涔夊彲鑳芥?х殑浜烘湁浜嗕粬浠潥鎸佺殑链?鍚庝竴阆挞槻绾裤?傛墍链夊叧浜庝竴鑸潎琛°?佹柟绋嬨?佷紒涓氩鍜岀摝灏旀媺鏂殑璇曢敊链哄埗镄勪簤璁洪兘琚吨鏂拌?冭槛浜嗐?傜ぞ浼氢富涔夋崓鍗?呭彧鏄粠杩欎竴镣逛笂阃?缂?:绀句细涓讳箟鏄瓨鍦ㄧ殑锛屼笉鏄悧锛熸棤璁轰綘璇翠粈涔堟垨锅氢粈涔堬紝绀句细涓讳箟閮芥槸瀛桦湪镄勶紝镓?浠ユ湁鍚勭鍚勬牱镄勫师锲犮?傛樉铹讹紝绫冲鏂偗瀹氭槸阌欑殑銆傚嵆浣垮搱钥跺厠鎴栫绥瀹炬柉镄勨?滃疄鐢ㄢ?濊镣癸紝鍙叧娉ㄦ晥鐜囩殑绋嫔害锛屼篃闇?瑕佸喎闱栾?冭槛銆傚湪浠栬宪鍚岖殑鍏充簬绀句细涓讳箟缁忔祹镄勮皟镆ユ枃绔犵殑缁揿熬锛屾煆镙兼.鏁欐巿鍏紑澹版槑:钬滃嚑涔庢病链変簤璁虹殑浣椤湴:绀句细涓讳箟镶畾鏄彲琛岀殑銆傚叞镙煎湪杩欐柟闱㈢殑纭緢链夎链嶅姏銆傜劧钥岋紝濡傛灉杩欐槸鍞竴镄勯棶棰桡紝浜轰滑涓岖瑕侀棶锛屽湪杩欎釜阒舵鏄惁闇?瑕佸姝ゅ鏉傜殑鐞呜璇佹槑銆傛瘯绔燂紝鑻忚仈镄勮鍒掔粡娴庡凡缁忚繍琛屼简30骞淬?傚鏋滆缮链変粈涔堣璇寸殑锛岄偅灏辨槸瀹冭缮娌℃湁宕╂簝銆俒37]

    棣栧厛锛岃繖涓嚜婊$殑缁撹鐜板湪鍙互鏂畾鏄櫄骞荤殑锛屽洜涓鸿嫃鑱斿拰鍏朵粬涓沧柟板嗗洟锲藉镄勭粡娴庢樉铹跺凡缁忓穿婧冦?傜幇鍦ㄧ殑浜嫔疄琛ㄦ槑锛屾煆镙兼.銆佷腑澶儏鎶ュ眬绛夎嫃鑱斾笓瀹讹紝鎶婅嫃鑱斿嚑鍗佸勾鏉ラ噰鐢ㄧ殑锲芥皯鐢熶骇镐诲?煎拰鐢熶骇鎸囨暟鎸夌エ闱环链艰绠楋紝镞犻潪鏄皫瑷?锛屼笉浠呯敤鏉ユ楠楃编锲斤紝涔熺敤鏉ユ楠楄嫃鑱旗鐞嗛桩灞傜殑缁熸不绮捐嫳銆傚嵆浣挎槸鐜板湪锛屽綋鎴戜粠鑻忚仈缁忔祹瀛﹀闾i噷浜呜В鍒拌繖浜涗笉鐪熷疄鏁版嵁镄勬渶缁堢湡鐩告椂锛岃タ鏂硅嫃鑱旈棶棰树笓瀹朵粛铹剁姽璞槸鍚︽帴鍙楀畠銆?

    铹惰?岋紝闄ゆ涔嫔锛屽绫冲鏂壒璇勮?呯殑杩欑鐪嬩技鍐冲畾镐х殑缁忛獙镐у弽椹充篃鎻ず浜嗙敤镓?璋撶殑绠?鍗曡?岀矖绯欑殑钬滀簨瀹炩?濇潵鍙嶉┏浜虹被琛屼负绉戝鐞呜镄勫嵄闄┿?备负浠?涔堟垜浠繀椤诲亣璁捐嫃鑱斿拰涓沧锲藉鐪熺殑链夊畲鍏ㄥ交搴旷殑绀句细涓讳箟鍒跺害锛熸湁璁稿鐞嗙敱鐩镐俊锛屽敖绠″叡浜у厷缁熸不钥呭仛鍑轰简锷姏锛屼絾浠栦滑镞犳硶瀹炴柦鍏ㄩ溃褰诲簳镄勭ぞ浼氢富涔夊埗搴﹀拰涓ぎ璁″垝銆备竴鏂归溃锛屼紬镓?锻ㄧ煡锛屾暣涓嫃鑱旗殑缁忔祹鍜岀ぞ浼氩厖婊′简榛戝竞鍜屽法澶х殑阃冮伩鎺у埗镄勭綉缁滐紝杩欐槸鐢变竴涓棤澶勪笉鍦ㄧ殑鍙互阃冮伩鎺у埗镄勮纯璧傜郴缁熲?滃竷鎷夌壒钬濈淮鎸佺殑銆傞潪娉曚紒涓氩鍜屽姵宸ュ洟阒熶笌链兘瀹炵幇骞村害鐢熶骇鐩爣镄勭粡鐞嗘墦浜ら亾锛屼互甯侄浠栦滑瀹炵幇鐩爣骞惰幏寰楄〃澶栧锷便?傝呖浜庡姹囬粦甯傦紝姣忎釜娓稿镞╁氨鐭ラ亾浜嗐?傛棭鍦ㄥ叡浜т富涔夊湪涓沧宕╂簝涔嫔墠锛岃繖浜涘浗瀹跺氨锅沧浜嗘秷闄ょ‖阃氲揣榛戝竞镄勫姫锷涳紝灏界杩欎簺榛戝竞鍦ㄥ崕娌欍?佸竷杈句僵鏂拰甯冩媺镙肩殑琛楀ご闅忓鍙銆傚鏋沧病链夌敱璐胯祩缁存寔镄勪笉鍙楁带鍒剁殑榛戝竞锛屽叡浜т富涔夌粡娴庢棭灏卞穿婧冧简銆俒38]杩欎竴铡嗗彶瑙傜偣涔熷缑鍒版尝鍏板凹钬沧带鍒惰寖锲粹?濈悊璁虹殑鏀寔銆傝鐞呜浠庝笌绫冲鏂畲鍏ㄤ笉鍚岀殑瑙掑害鍚﹀畾浜嗘湁鏁堢殑涓ぎ璁″垝镄勫彲鑳芥?с?俒39]

    铹惰?岋紝鍐冲畾镐х殑鍙嶉┏鍐嶆鏉ヨ嚜绫冲鏂?娄汉镄勮锷ㄣ??:鑻忚仈鍜屼笢娆х粡娴庝綋骞朵笉瀹屽叏鏄ぞ浼氢富涔夎?咃紝锲犱负瀹冧滑姣旷珶鏄祫链富涔変笘鐣屽竞鍦轰腑镄勫宀涖?傚洜姝わ紝鍏变骇涓讳箟璁″垝钥呰兘澶熶娇鐢ㄤ笘鐣屽竞鍦哄畾浠蜂綔涓鸿祫链祫婧愬畾浠峰拰鍒嗛厤镄勫熀链嗳鍒欙紝灏界鏄鎷椤拰涓嶅畲鍏ㄧ殑銆傛濡傜背濉炴柉鎸囧嚭镄?:钬滀汉浠病链夌湅鍒颁粬浠笉鏄绔嬬殑绀句细涓讳箟鍒跺害銆备粬浠湪浠锋牸浣撶郴浠岖劧链夋晥镄勭幆澧冧腑杩愯惀銆备粬浠繘琛岀粡娴庤绠楃殑鑳藉姏鍙栧喅浜庡锲戒环镙笺?傛病链夎繖浜涗环镙肩殑甯侄锛屼粬浠殑琛屽姩灏嗗彉寰楁极镞犵洰镄勫拰镞犺鍒掋?傚彧链夊洜涓轰粬浠彲浠ヤ緷璧栧锲戒环镙硷紝浠栦滑镓嶈兘璁$畻銆佽璐﹀拰鍑嗗浠栦滑阃氩父镓?璇寸殑璁″垝銆俒40]

    绫冲鏂殑瑙傜偣镞╁湪20涓栫邯50骞翠唬涓湡灏卞缑鍒拌瘉瀹烇紝褰撴椂鑻卞浗缁忔祹瀛﹀褰煎缑镐?灏旀柉璁块棶浜嗘尝鍏帮紝鍏版牸鍦ㄦ尝鍏板府锷╄鍒掔ぞ浼氢富涔夈?傛??灏旀柉闅忓悗璇㈤棶娉㈠叞缁忔祹瀛﹀浠栦滑鏄浣曡鍒掔粡娴庝綋绯荤殑銆傛??灏旀柉鎶ラ亾璇?:钬滃疄闄呬笂鍙戠敓镄勬槸钬滀笘鐣屼环镙尖?濓紝鍗宠祫链富涔変笘鐣屼环镙硷紝阃傜敤浜庢暣涓?(鑻忚仈)板嗗洟鍐呴儴镄勮锤鏄撱?傚畠浠杞崲鎴愬崲甯冧环镙?.鐢ㄤ簬鍙岃竟璐︽埛缁撶畻銆?

    wiles鎺ョ潃闂尝鍏板叡浜у厷镄勭瓥鍒掕?呰繖涓叧阌棶棰朴?傚洜涓轰綔涓烘澃鍑虹殑椹厠镐濅富涔夎?咃紝娉㈠叞浜哄繀椤昏嚧锷涗簬灏藉揩鍦ㄤ笘鐣岃寖锲村唴鍙栧缑绀句细涓讳箟鑳滃埄锛屾??灏旀柉闂亾:钬滃鏋沧病链夎祫链富涔変笘鐣岋紝镓?链夎繖浜涘叧阌环镙奸兘鍙互浠庨偅閲岃幏寰楋紝浣犱细镐庝箞锅泛紵钬濇尝鍏扮殑瑙勫垝钥呯浉褰撴劋涓栧珘淇楀湴锲炲簲阆?:钬滃綋鎴戜滑鏉ュ埌杩椤骇妗ョ殑镞跺?欙紝鎴戜滑浼氲绷妗ョ殑銆傗?濇??灏旀柉琛ュ厖阆?:钬滃鏋滀粬浠凡缁忓埌杈句简妗ユ:娌℃湁涓栫晫甯傚満锛屽畾浠峰皢鏋佸叾锲伴毦銆傗?漑41]

    浣嗗垢杩愮殑鏄紝瀵逛簬涓栫晫鍜屾尝鍏扮殑瑙勫垝钥呮潵璇达紝浠栦滑浠庢潵娌℃湁鐪熸琚揩杩囬偅搴фˉ銆?

    缁撹:绀句细涓讳箟镄勭粓缁揿拰绫冲鏂洉镀?

    鍦ㄤ粬1936骞存墍璋撶殑涓虹ぞ浼氢富涔夊埗搴︾殑缁忔祹璁$畻杈╂姢镄勫喅瀹氭?ф枃绔犱腑锛屽叞镙肩粰浜嗙背濉炴柉镟剧粡钁楀悕镄勮鍒恒?傚湪鏂囩珷镄勫紑澶达紝鍏版牸寮?鐜╃瑧鍦版锻肩背濉炴柉瀵圭ぞ浼氢富涔夌殑璐$尞:钬灭ぞ浼氢富涔夎?呭綋铹舵湁鐞嗙敱娆h祻绫冲鏂暀鎺埚弽瀵逛粬浠殑浜嬩笟銆傜敱浜庝粬镄勫己链夊姏镄勮镣癸紝绀句细涓讳箟钥呰杩璇嗗埌阃傚綋镄勭粡娴庢牳绠椾綋绯荤殑閲嶈镐р?﹁繖浣垮缑绀句细涓讳箟钥呯郴缁熷湴鐪嫔緟杩欎釜闂銆傝繖瀹屽叏鏄洜涓虹背濉炴柉鏁欐巿銆傗?濆叞镙兼帴镌?鍢茬瑧绫冲鏂?:钬沧棤璁烘槸浣滀负瀵逛粬镄勪紵澶ц础鐚殑璁ゅ彲锛岃缮鏄綔涓哄鑹ソ缁忔祹镙哥畻閲嶈镐х殑绾康锛岀背濉炴柉鏁欐巿镄勯洉镀忓簲璇ュ湪绀句细?富涔夊浗瀹剁殑绀句细鍖栭儴闂ㄦ垨涓ぎ瑙勫垝灞?镄勫ぇ铡呴噷链変竴涓厜钻g殑浣岖疆銆?

    鍏版牸琛ュ厖阆?:钬沧亹镐旷背濉炴柉鏁欐巿涓崭细鍠沧鐢ㄥ敮涓?鍚堥?傜殑鏂瑰纺鏉ュ伩杩樿婵?璧风殑绀句细涓讳箟钥呭浠栫殑淇′换钬︹?︹?濅粬鎯冲嚭浜嗕竴涓湁链涚粨鏉熺背濉炴柉灏村艾灞?闱㈢殑鏂规硶:钬滀竴浣岖ぞ浼氢富涔夋暀甯埚彲鑳戒细闾?璇蜂粬镄勮京璇佸敮鐗╀富涔夌彮镄勫鐢熷弬瑙傜背濉炴柉镄勯洉镀忥紝鏉ヨ鏄庨粦镙煎皵镄勨?灭悊镐х嫛鐚锯?濇槸濡备綍璁╁嵆浣挎槸链?鍧氩畾镄勮祫浜ч桩绾х粡娴庡瀹朵篃镞犳剰璇嗗湴涓烘棤浜ч桩绾т簨涓氭湇锷$殑銆俒42]

    浣嗗镐殑鏄紝鍦ㄦ尝鍏版媴浠荤ぞ浼氢富涔夎鍒掕?呯殑闾d簺骞撮噷锛屽叞镙间粠链湪鍗庢矙镄勭ぞ浼氢簨锷¢儴鎴愬姛鍦版爲绔嬭捣绫冲鏂殑板曞儚銆备篃璁哥ぞ浼氢富涔夎鍒掓病链夋垚锷熷埌缁欎篑绫冲鏂粬镓?甯屾湜镄勮嵛瑾夛紝鎴栬?呬篃璁告病链夎冻澶熺殑璧勬簮鏉ュ缓阃犺繖搴ч洉镀忋?傛抵链病链夋満浼氥??20涓栫邯30骞翠唬镓?璋撶殑钬滀紵澶х殑绀句细涓讳箟瀹为獙钬濋?犳垚浜嗕笢娆у浗瀹剁殑搴熷銆?

    镞犳暟绫冲鏂粡娴庡瀹朵粠绀句细涓讳箟宕╂簝镄勫帘澧熶腑宕涜捣銆傚浠栦滑鏉ヨ锛岀ぞ浼氢富涔変笉浠呬粎鏄竴涓喎绗戣瘽銆傛棭鍦?20涓栫邯60骞翠唬锛岀粡娴庡瀹朵腑涓?涓祦琛岀殑璁藉垭鏄紝鍦ㄥ浗闄呯粡娴庝细璁笂锛屸?滆タ鏂圭粡娴庡瀹惰璁鸿璁″垝镄勮嵛钥?锛岃?屼笢鏂圭粡娴庡瀹惰皥璁鸿嚜鐢卞竞鍦虹殑浼樼偣銆傗?濆浠婏紝绫冲鏂粡娴庡瀹舵浠庢尝鍏般?佺珛闄跺疀銆佹嵎鍏嫔叡鍜屽浗銆佸寛鐗椤埄銆佸崡鏂媺澶?(灏ゅ叾鏄厠缃楀湴浜氩拰鏂礇鏂囧凹浜?)鍜岃嫃鑱旗殑绀句细涓讳箟搴熷涓秾鐜板嚭鏉ャ?傜ぞ浼氢富涔夎鍒掑拰椹厠镐濆垪瀹佷富涔夊鍓岖ぞ浼氢富涔夊浗瀹剁殑缁忔祹瀛﹀閮芥病链変换浣曞惛寮曞姏銆?

    鍦ㄦ墍链夎繖浜涘浗瀹讹紝鍒楀畞镄勯洉镀忚绮楁毚鍦颁粠鍏叡骞垮満涓婃媶闄ゃ?傚湪鍗冲皢鍒版潵镄勪笢娆ц嚜鐢辩ぞ浼氢腑锛屾棤璁鸿瑙嗕负瑙f斁鍏堢煡镄勭背濉炴柉板曞儚鏄惁琚?変腑鏉ュ彇浠e畠锛屾湁涓?镣逛技涔庢槸镶畾镄?:鍏版牸镄勯洉镀忎笉浼氩湪鍏嬫媺绉戝か鎴栧崕娌欑珫绔嬨?傚緢闅剧湅鍑虹悊镐х殑镫$尵鍜岄粦镙煎皵镄勮京璇佹硶鑳借瘉鏄庡叞镙兼槸链潵娉㈠叞镊敱鏀句换缁忔祹镄勫厛鐭ユ垨閲嶈璐$尞钥呫?备篃璁告渶璐村垏镄勬槸1989骞翠笢娆ч潻锻芥湡闂寸洓?镄勪竴涓嫤娑╃殑璁藉垭:钬滃叡浜т富涔夊彲浠ヨ瀹氢箟涓轰粠璧勬湰涓讳箟鍒拌祫链富涔夌殑链?闀胯矾绾裤?傗??

    Text:Murray N . Rosebud

    Translation:Zen浜戣捣

    缃楁柉宸村痉 | 绀句细涓讳箟缁忔祹璁$畻杈╄鍙诧纸涓嬶级

    Annotation

    [19]Mises锛屸?灭ぞ浼氩叡鍚岃储瀵屼腑镄勭粡娴庤绠椻?濓紝绗?106-08椤点??

    [20]鍚屼笂锛岀106椤点?傝繖涓?1920骞寸殑缁撹涓?1989骞存尝鍏版祦琛岀殑璁藉垭闱炲父鐩镐技銆傝矾鏄撴柉缁村皵澶у镄勬暀鎺圞rzyztof Ostazewski鎶ュ憡璇达紝绀句细涓讳箟璁″垝缁忔祹鏄?滀竴涓绠鑳藉効鎿崭綔镄勪环链肩蒙纰庢満钬濄??

    [21]绫冲鏂紝銆娄汉绫昏锷ㄣ?嬶紝绗?706-椤碉紝姝e绫冲鏂墍璇达紝钬滃氨杩炲悇绉嶅悇镙风殑绀句细涓讳箟钥呬篃涓?鍐嶈〃绀猴紝浠栦滑镄勫畯浼熻鍒掍箣镓?浠ユ垚锷燂紝鏄洜涓鸿縿浠婄Н绱殑璐㈠瘜銆傜劧钥岋紝涓庢鍚屾椂锛屼粬浠篃蹇借浜呜繖镙蜂竴涓簨瀹烇紝鍗宠繖浜涜储瀵屼腑镄勫ぇ澶氢緷璧栦簬杩囧幓鐢熶骇镄勮祫链拰鍟嗗搧锛屼粠鐩墠镄勮瘎浼板拰鎶?链煡璇嗘潵鐪嬶紝杩欎簺璧勬湰鍜屽晢鍝佹垨澶氭垨灏戝凡缁忚绷镞朵简銆傗?濆悓涓婏紝绗?710椤点??

    [22]瑙佺背濉炴柉镄勭玛璁板拰锲炲繂(鏂櫘鏋楃背灏旀柉锛屽澶曟硶灏间簹:镊敱镒忓织鍑虹増绀撅紝1978)锛岀112椤点?备篃瑙侀粯閲岀绥鏂反寰疯矾寰风淮甯屽啹绫冲鏂?:瀛﹁?咃紝鍒涢?犺?咃紝鑻遍泟(濂ユ湰锛岄樋鎷夊反椹?:璺痉缁村笇鍐背濉炴柉镰旗┒镓?锛?1988)锛岀35-38椤点??

    [23]铹跺悗鍦ㄥ竞鍦轰笂锛屾秷璐硅?呯敤搴忔暟鏉ヨ瘎浠峰晢鍝佸拰链嶅姟锛岃?屼紒涓氩鐢ㄥ熀鏁版潵璇勪环鍟嗗搧鍜屾湇锷?(浼拌鍜岄娴嬫湭鏉ヤ环镙?)銆傝绫冲鏂紝浜虹被琛屽姩锛岀327-330椤碉绂钀ㄥ嫆璇猴紝钬滀綔涓虹ぞ浼氢富涔夎?呯殑绫冲鏂?濓紝绗?39-49椤碉绂钀ㄥ嫆璇猴紝銆婄ぞ浼氢富涔夌粡娴庢槸涓嶅彲鑳界殑銆嬨??

    [24]绫冲鏂湪浠栫殑锲炲繂褰曚腑璇?:钬滀粬浠琜绀句细涓讳箟钥?)娌℃湁鐪嫔埌绗竴涓写鎴?:镐绘槸娑夊强鏉冭 鎴栦笉骞崇瓑璇勪环镄勭粡娴庤涓哄浣曡兘阃氲绷绛夊纺杞寲涓哄钩绛夎瘎浠凤紵锲犳锛岀ぞ浼氢富涔夋敮鎸佽?呰崚璋湴鎻愬嚭浜嗘暟瀛︿氦鎹㈢殑镟夸唬鏂圭▼锛屽畠鎻忕粯浜嗗湪甯傚満缁忔祹涓秷闄や汉绫昏涓虹殑锲炬櫙銆傜背濉炴柉锛屻?婄玛璁板拰锲炲繂銆嬶紝绗?112椤点??

    [25]浠栧悗鏉ュ湪20涓栫邯20骞翠唬镄勫晢涓氩懆链熺悊璁轰腑瀹屾垚浜呜繖涓?鍚埚苟锛岄殢鍚庝粬鍙戣〃浜嗗叿链夐噷绋嬬镒忎箟镄勮鏂囥?娄汉镄勮锷ㄣ?嬨??

    [26]姝ゅ杩樻湁鍝堣?跺厠鍜岀绥瀹炬柉瀵规墍璋撶ぞ浼氢富涔夎绠楀汹闅炬垨钬滆鏁扳?濈殑涓嶅垢寮鸿皟銆傝涓嬫枃銆?

    [27]钀ㄥ嫆璇猴紝钬滀綔涓虹ぞ浼氱悊镐т富涔夎?呯殑绫冲鏂?濓紝绗?44椤?

    [28]Israel M. Kirzner, 钬? TheEconomic Calculation Debate: Lessons for Austrians, 钬? Review of AustrianEconomics 2(1988): 118[PDF]. 鍝堣?跺厠鍦ㄦ鏂囦腑阃犲嚭钬滃彂鐜拌绷绋嬧?濊繖涓瘝锛岃 F.A.Hayek, 钬? Competition as a Discovery Procedure, 钬? in New Studies inPhilosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas(Chicago: University ofChicago Press, 1978), pp. . 瀵规煰鍏圭撼浼佷笟瀹舵蹇电殑镓瑰垽鍙傞槄Murray N.Rothbard, 钬? Professor H茅bert on Entrepreneurship, 钬? Journal of Libertarian Studies 7(Fall1985): [PDF]. 鍏充簬鍝堣?跺厠链韩鍦ㄥ叞镙?-鍕掔撼涔嫔悗瀵逛簬绀句细涓讳箟璁$畻镄勮础鐚紝鍙傞槄F. A. Hayek, 钬? Socialist Calculation 111: The Competitive'Solution'钬? (1940), and钬? The Use of Knowledgein Society, 钬? (1945), in Individualism and Economic Order, pp. ; 7791.

    [29]Mises, Human Action, p.696. Also see Salerno,钬? Mises as social Rationalist, 钬? pp. 4647ff.

    [30]镆吂绾虫樉铹惰涓猴紝绫冲鏂湪浠? 銆娄汉镄勮锷ㄣ?? 镄勭ぞ浼氢富涔夎璁轰腑瀵逛紒涓氩镄勯佩搴﹀叧娉紝琛ㄦ槑浠栧凡缁忚浆鍙桦埌鍝堣?跺厠镄勮瑙c?傛煰鍏圭撼浼间箮蹇借浜嗙背濉炴柉棰勬祴鍜屼及浠风殑浼佷笟瀹舵墠鑳界殑瑙傚康涓庝粬钬滆瑙夋?р?? 瀛﹁镄勫法澶у樊寮伞?傚悗钥呭畲鍏ㄩ仐婕忎简浼佷笟瀹舵崯澶辩殑鍙兘镐с??

    [31]Lionel Robbins, TheGreat Depression(New York: Macmillan, 1934). p. 151.

    [32]F. A. Hayek, The Present State of the Debate, 钬? in Hayek,Collectivist Economic Planning, p. 212.

    [33]Oskar Lange, 钬? On theEconomic Theory of Socialism, Part One, 钬? p. 67.鎸▉缁忔祹瀛﹀鍙婄背濉炴柉瑙佽В镄勬崓鍗?匮rygve Hoff璇勮璇达细钬滀?斾笉璇磋繖涓簨瀹烇紝鍗充腑澶綋灞?瑕佹眰瑙g殑鏂圭▼锛屼笌绉佷汉瑕佹眰瑙g殑鏂圭▼链川涓婂ぇ涓岖浉鍚岋紝鍚庤?呭?惧悜浜庤嚜宸辫嚜锷ㄥ湴瑙e喅锛岃?屽叞镙煎崥澹繀椤绘圹璁ゅ墠钥呮病娉曡繖镙峰仛銆傗?滺off, Economic Calculation in the Socialist Society, pp. .杩欐湰鍏充簬绀句细涓讳箟璁$畻杈╄镄勪紭绉?钁椾綔锛屾渶鍒濅簬1938骞村湪鎸▉鍑虹増銆傜浉瀵逛簬镆忔牸妫嚑涔庡悓镞剁殑缁艰堪璁烘枃锛岄湇澶殑鑻辫疟鐗?1949骞村湪鑻卞浗钥岄潪缇庡浗鍑虹増锛屽皵鍚庢巩娌℃棤闂汇??

    [34]Oskar Lange,钬? The Role of Planningin Socialist Economy, 钬? in The Political Economy of Socialism(1958)in M.Bornstein, ed. Comparative Economic Systems, rev. ed. (Homewood, Ill.Richard D. Irwin, 1969), pp. .

    [35]Oskar Lange, 钬? TheComputer and the Market, 钬? in A. Nove and D. Nuti, eds. SocialistEconomics(London: Penguin Books, 1972), pp. .

    [36]Yuri M. Maltsev, 钬沦oviet Economic Reforms: An Inside Perspective, 钬? The Freeman(March 1990).

    [37]Bergson, 钬? SocialistEconomics, 钬? p. 447.

    [38]One source on thispervasive system in the Soviet Union is Konstantin M. Simis,

    [39]Michael Polanyi, TheLogic of Liberty(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), pp. andpassim.

    [40]Mises, Human Action,pp. .

    [41]Peter J. D. Wiles, 钬淐hanging Economic Thought inPoland,钬? OxfordEconomic Papers 9(June 1957): . Also see Murray N. Rothbard, 钬? Ludwig vonMises and Economic Calculation Under Socialism, 钬? in Lawrence Moss, TheEconomics of Ludwig won Mises, pp. 6777.

    [42]Lange, 钬? The EconomicTheory of Socialism, 钬? p. 53.

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